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What to Expect During Your Visit to the Pediatrician

Having a new little member of the family is exciting for everyone, especially for parents. However, it also entails a lot of responsibilities. One of which is seeing the pediatrician for your baby’s regular well-visits. Even if you are confident that your little tot is healthy, going to the doctor is vital.

But how do you know when is the right time to visit your baby’s physician? You must not miss a consultation schedule of your child within the first two years. The reason is that the first two years are a crucial time in your baby’s growth and development. The doctor will diligently monitor and record the child’s progress physically, mentally, and medically. Here is the baby well check-up schedule recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and what you expect to be done by each visit.

First Week of Birth

Doctors examine a child within 24 hours of birth. They do a full exam, check the normal body functions, and newborn reflexes. Pediatricians also assess skin tone, alertness, the stability of hips and legs, and responsiveness. The tests will also include the eyes, mouth, ears, heart, lungs, and genitalia to ensure that the baby is healthy. Physicians will also take and record physical measurements like length or height, weight, and head circumference. Other things that will be monitored and observed on your baby are the following:

  • Developmental Milestones
  • Social Behavioral
  • Physical Progress

Additional exams will comprise hearing screening and newborn metabolic and hemoglobin screening. Also, expect that your baby will get the Hepatitis B immunization at birth. You will have to bring back the baby to the doctor within the first week of delivery. It will make sure that everything is going well and that the child’s growth is right on track.

First, Second, Fourth, and Sixth Month

During your baby’s first six-month visits, the pediatrician will perform all the examinations done the first time. The doctor will once again observe and record measurements, developmental surveillance, psychosocial and behavioral assessment, and physical progress. All of these will be conducted each time that your baby will have a regular check-up while growing up.

Tuberculosis (TB) test might also be done during the first month, and the second dose of the hepatitis B vaccine can either be administered within the first or second month. Your baby will receive a lot of shots in the second month, which your doctor can combine for less baby crying, as follows:

  • Rotavirus (RV) vaccine, given in two to three doses between the second to the sixth month
  • Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine
  • Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine
  • Pneumococcal vaccine (PCV) and
  • Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV)

Also, expect that your baby will have the hematocrit or hemoglobin screening in the fourth month. It helps detect anemia at an early stage. Your child will also get the second dose of RV, DTaP, Hib, PCV, and IPV. And in the sixth month, the third dose of DTaP, PCV, and Hib will be given. You can also ask for a flu shot if it is already the season. Doctors recommend giving kids aged six months to 19 years the flu vaccine every year. During this time, doctors will conduct lead screening and oral check-up. Finally, your child may get the final dosage of the hepatitis B vaccine. It is commonly administered between the sixth and 18th month.

Ninth, 12th and 15th Month

The developmental screening to be performed in the ninth month is more thorough. Pediatricians will look for any signs of developmental delays. Your baby might also get a lead screening test. Additionally, the doctor will provide the hepatitis A vaccine, which can be given between 12 to 23 months. And between your baby’s 12th and 15th month, the following immunizations will be given:

  • The Fourth dose of Hib and PCV
  • First doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) and varicella vaccines

18th and 24th month 

During this period, your doctor will check for any sign of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It will check your baby’s reaction to certain stimuli. Early detection of ASD will enable the pediatrician to recommend programs that will help with the child’s development. Your child will also get more doses of vaccines for DTap, hepatitis B, IPV, and hepatitis A if they haven’t been given yet. Other tests that may be required are hematocrit or hemoglobin test, lead screening, TB test, and oral health examination.

Lastly, on your kid’s second birthday, doctors recommend the meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4), especially to high-risk children aged two to ten. Another important test that may be required is the dyslipidemia screening to find early signs of a lipid disorder.

Going to the pediatrician may be taxing. But, the well-being and health of your child are of utmost importance. It is important to keep abreast of changes as you never know if you might need the services of Children Surgery Perth. Thus, always ensure that you stick to the schedule given by doctors and always follow their medical instructions.

Getting Braces

Getting Braces? 6 Things You Should Expect During & After Installation

“Will getting dental braces hurt?”

This is one of many questions you may have before entering the orthodontist’s clinic to have the device installed into your teeth. To answer the question: No, applying braces is not painful at all.

Of course, that is probably just the first of dozens of queries you may have in your mind. Since people decide to wear braces for different reasons, it may take a lot of time to think through these concerns.

To help ease your mind, here are six things you should expect during and after braces have been installed:

During the Installation

On the day of your appointment with the orthodontist, you should expect that:

  1. The process will take about the length of a movie

If you plan on getting conventional dental braces made from metal or ceramic, chances are that you would have to endure a procedure that will last approximately one to two hours or the entire length of a movie.

It may take a longer or shorter time, depending on your teeth and the type of orthodontic device to be used. In some cases, you may need to return for a second appointment to have it installed properly.

2. You’ll feel slight pressure, but no pain

As mentioned earlier, you should expect no pain when having braces installed. However, you might feel a slight sense of pressure on your teeth during the installation process

3. Mode of installation will depend on the type of braces you have

For conventional braces made from metal or ceramic, the process is simple: After the brackets are installed in thoroughly cleaned teeth, the orthodontist will slide on metal bands around the back molars to anchor it in. Then, the archwires are attached to the brackets using a small rubber band piece called ligature to hold them in place.

Lingual braces have quite a similar process, except that they are applied to the back of the teeth rather than the front.

As for invisible aligners such as Invisalign, the dentist won’t need bands or wires to secure them to the teeth. Instead, these orthodontic devices are molded based on an impression of your teeth to make sure that the trays have a snug fit.

Immediately After

Braces may take some getting used to, especially when eating. Here are several things you should expect days after the orthodontic device has been installed:

4. Difficulty eating

One of the things you should expect to have a bit of trouble with immediately after a dental brace installation involves food consumption. Although it may not be painful, you may take longer eating since your mouth is still adjusting to the new braces. There are even some cases that your teeth may be more sensitive than usual.

With that in mind, make sure to set aside foods that are difficult to chew until you get used to your braces. Starting with a soft diet should do the trick. Among the things you can eat are porridge, macaroni, cheese, mashed potatoes, soups, yogurt, smoothies, and milkshakes.

5. Minor discomfort

Two to three days after the process, you might experience pressure that can sometimes be uncomfortable. This is because your teeth are only beginning to realign with the help of braces and are still getting used to the pressure applied by the orthodontic elastic bands and archwire.

You can ask your orthodontist for a medication in the form of topical wax to be applied on your braces to reduce irritation on your lips and inner cheek.

In the Long Run

Aside from all these, there are also some things that may temporarily change while you are wearing your braces. Some of them are:

6. Temporary diet change

Adjusting to the presence and pressure applied by braces on your mouth takes more or less one month. After that, you should be able to feel close to your normal self, except you may need to change up your diet a little bit.

Although you may be able to eat most foods after the adjustment period, it is strongly advised that you avoid biting or chewing on hard, sticky, and chewy food items, such as popcorn, nuts, hard taco shells, corn chips, ice, hard or sticky candy, gum, and pretzels, among others.

Don’t Forget Proper Oral Care

Regular and correct dental hygiene is vital for oral care in general, but it is particularly crucial after orthodontic treatment. When you get braces, you may need to buy a different set of toothbrushing tools and flossers to ensure that your braces and teeth are free of debris and food particles that may cause plaque and tooth decay.


Dr. Zul Paliwalla is the General and Cosmetic British Dentist at NOA Dental Clinic, specializing in smile-related concerns. With over 33 years of experience in the UK, Dr. Zul has successfully worked on and improved many internationally recognized smiles. He is a certified Invisalign® GOLD provider as well and has brought his elite expertise to Dubai not only to enjoy the sun, sea and sand, but also to offer his brand of personalized smile makeovers.

Testosterone Therapy for Women

Although Aging Cannot Be Avoided, You Can Slow It down by Applying These 7 Scientifically-Proven Methods

Testosterone Therapy for Women

If you have never thought about testosterone replacement therapy, and you’re premenopausal or have settled into menopause, this article may be of some interest to you. Science has shown that there are tremendous benefits when it comes to testosterone replacement therapy in women, namely in the areas of libido.

 So what is testosterone replacement therapy, exactly? Commonly referred to as androgen replacement, testosterone replacement therapy is a procedure in which androgens are replaced to combat male hypogonadism, a condition whereby the testicles fail to work properly. That said, the benefits of testosterone replacement therapy are not limited to only men; science is proving the women can also reap the benefits of hormone replacement therapy. In this article, we will detail how women can benefit from this procedure and also take a look at some of the case studies that address its efficacy.


In an international study that examined the effects of hormone replacement amongst men and women, it indicated that 88 percent of physicians acknowledged a nexus between libido and testosterone, strengthening the argument that procedure is useful for both genders when it comes to a low sex drive. It is also worth noting that 53 percent of physicians were in support of hormone replacement for men and women, and they would recommend the therapy as a means of resolving symptomatic low testosterone levels in both genders.


While testosterone replacement in women was previously limited to very specific cases and considered a last resort, it is quickly becoming the treatment of choice for physicians and patients alike. To further contextualize this statement, over 47 percent of women in America have admitted that sexual dysfunction is placing on a strain on their relationships and many have cited low libido as the source of their problem. This makes sense when you take into consideration that testosterone is part of a larger group of androgens, which play a critical role in fertility and sex drive.

As far as safety is concerned, testosterone therapy involves the use of an FDA approved off-label SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), flibanserin. However, despite its FDA approval, there are still some risks associated with testosterone replacement therapy, especially when it comes to higher doses. These side effects may include

  • Deepened voice
  • Facial hair
  • Acne
  • Chest hair


Although the effects of low testosterone in men are well established, how it affects women is not quite as well understood. To further emphasize this point, a study conducted by the University of Rochester Medical Center concluded that healthy hormone levels in women should equal 15 to 70 nanograms of testosterone in the blood. However, there is, as of the writing of this article, no evidence to support what constitutes low testosterone level for women other than the symptoms frequently reported by them. Some of these symptoms include

  • Muscle fatigue
  • Low energy
  • Decreased libido
  • Weight gain
  • Fertility problems
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Heavy or irregular menstrual cycles
  • Decreased bone density

Along with these symptoms, some women have reported problems with their adrenal gland, pituitary glands, and ovaries. Of course, if you’re experiencing any of these symptoms, you’re encouraged to avoid self-diagnosis as testing will have to be done to rule out other possible health problems. As such, you will want to schedule an appointment with your physician to assess your overall health.


Low testosterone in women can be traced to a number of things, which include normal aging and problems with the adrenal or pituitary glands, not to mention problems with the ovaries. As far as aging is concerned, there really no way to evade time. Testosterone and estrogen levels will naturally decrease as women reach or settle into menopause. It’s also worth mentioning that testosterone levels are dictated by the ovaries; if the ovaries are incapable of producing enough hormones, testosterone levels will invariably pay the price. Lastly, the same medications that are prescribed to treat menopause can cause testosterone levels to drop as well.

Testosterone Therapy for Women


Although the benefits of testosterone therapy for women have been backed by multiple studies, there is some doubt concerning its efficacy. In fact, in a research study conducted by the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, researchers concluded that testosterone replacement therapy is not only unproven and is ill-advised in light of the potential side effect.


In making certain lifestyle and dietary changes, you can naturally reverse the effects of aging; some of these changes include

Drinking water can significantly contribute to healthy skin. It can also boost the immune and digestive system and, lastly, flush toxins from the body.

Quitting smoking is another great way to reverse the effects of premature aging; after all, cigarettes are known to negatively affect one’s appearance, causing wrinkles, puffy eyes, stained teeth, and much more.

Taking vitamins like vitamin C and E, for example, can improve your appearance as they both contain anti-aging antioxidants.

Managing stress can go a long way toward reversing the signs of aging and improving your mental health. The best ways to manage stress is by making exercise part of your lifestyle; also, it worth noting that meditation can be helpful in this regard as well.

Getting more sleep can benefit you in more ways than you think; for example, while we are

sleeping the body is hard at work balancing hormones, detoxifying, and repairing cells. Needless to say, being sleep deprived can significantly contribute to premature aging.

Taking herbal supplements can help in boost your libido naturally; in fact, herbs like Ginkgo

biloba has been shown to help increase sexual desire and arousal. Along with Ginkgo biloba, Yohimbine is another herb that has been shown to increase sexual arousal.

Eating chocolate can spark flames of desire between you and your significant other; studies have shown that chocolate, especially dark chocolate, encourages the release of serotonin and phenylethylamine and produces an aphrodisiac effect.

In summation, testosterone is essential for men and women; however, the extent to which testosterone replacement therapy benefits women is still uncertain. There is, however, strong evidence that supports its efficacy even if the available data is less than definitive.